The modern history of Roma nation is very influenced by the theory of separation into three groups, after the Gypsies left India. In support of this theory comes a legend gathered from Ali Ceaușev by Donald Kenrick (1) in 1972. The legend says that the gypsies separated in three groups, each group emigrating in three different countries: Armenia, Byzantium and Arabia. This theory is presented even in the official book of the history of the Gypsies (2), edited by the romanian Ministry of Education and Research. Here is the legend as was said by Ali Ceaușev:
“We had a great emperor, a Roma. He was our prince, our Shah. At the time, Roma were living all together in a country, in a good place, called Sindh. It was a clean, beautiful country. People were happy and joyful. Everybody had a good life. The name of our emperor was Maramengro Dev. He had two brothers, called Rromano and Singan. Everything was alright. But then, there was a great war. Started by the Muslims. The soldiers destroyed the country of Roma. They burned the land. The three brothers led their people far away. Some of them went to Arabia, some in Armenia, others in Byzantium. They became poor in those countries.”
No one until now has not seen that in this legend appears combined in one (Singan) the name of another two gypsy kings, Chen/Zin and Gan. Here is the legend as Charles Leland (3) passed it down:
"This legend says that when the gypsy nation were driven out of their country (India), and arrived at Mekran, they constructed a wonderful machine to which a wheel was attached.” From the context of this imperfectly told story, it would appear as if the gypsies could not travel farther until this wheel should revolve:—“Nobody appeared to be able to turn it, till in the midst of their vain efforts some evil spirit presented himself under the disguise of a sage, and informed the chief, whose name was Chen, that the wheel would be made to turn only when he had married his sister Guin. The chief accepted the advice, the wheel turned round, and the name of the tribe after this incident became that of the combined names of the brother and sister, Chenguin, the appellation of all the gypsies of Turkey at the present day.” The legend goes on to state that in consequence of p. 341 this unnatural marriage the gypsies were cursed and condemned by a Mahometan saint to wander forever on the face of the earth. The real meaning of the myth—for myth it is—is very apparent. Chen is a Romany word, generally pronounced chone, meaning the moon; [341a] while guin is almost universally given as gan or kan. That is to say, Chen-gan or -kan, or Zin-kan, is much commoner than Chen-guin. Now kan is a common gypsy word for the sun."
In the Preface of his book, Leland said about the origin of the word Zingan:
"Many writers have suggested the Jats, Banjars, and others as probable ancestors or type-givers of the race; but the existence of the Rom himself in India, bearing the distinctive name of Rom, has never before been set forth in any book or by any other writer. I have also given what may in reason be regarded as settling the immensely disputed origin of the word “Zingan,” by the gypsies’ own account of its etymology, which was beyond all question brought by them from India."
It is clear that Ali Ceaușev perhaps combined the two words, Zin and Gan, and the result was the name of Romani nation as it is known by the native romanians, i.e. Țigan (tsigan), the other one, Romano, being clear the source of the gypsy autonyme Rom (from the sanskrit Dom-a low-caste musician). The greek word Athinganoi (ațigan/țigan= slave in romanian language) was a later superimposition over the supposedly gypsy autonym Chenguin/Zingan. It is known that the Roma people were enslaved in Romania. The legend also indicates Armenia as a place inhabited by one of the three groups. The modern hystorians identified the armenian gypsies known as Lom or Bosha, as being one of the three gypsy groups mentioned in the legend of Ali Ceaușev. These LOM gypsies spoke a language called Lomavren, different by the Romani language, which is actually extinct. Nobody knows when the Loms came in Armenia. The modern Romani researcher Donald Kenrick (4) was tempted to believe that the Romani was in contact with the Armenian because the transformation of sanskrit BH to PH: ”The main effect of contact with Armenian was to change sounds like „bh” to „p-h”( „p” with a puff of breath after it). The technical term is „devoicing the aspirated voiced consonants”.
But Donald Kenrick was wrong, because even in India, the sound „bh” is changed in „ph” or „p”. For instance, the sanskrit „bhrata”- brother became „pra” in Punjabi, and „phral/pral” in Romani!
The armenian hypothesis
All Romani language researchers agree that the Roma people lived a long period in Armenia, because in the Romani language are a lot of armenian words. It is very curious how the researchers did not see a very interesting part of the armenian history. In my opinion, the Loma/Bosha nation are the offsprings of the first hindu colony established 2166 years ago in Armenia. Johannes Avdall in the article ”A hindu colony in ancient Armenia” (5), tells us that the syrian bishop Zenobius wrote in his account about the temples raised by the hindu refugees in the honour of Vishap (Dragon). It is clear that Zenobius wanted to write the name of hindu God Vishnu. The story of the first hindu colony in Armenia is as follows: two hindu princes Demetr and Keisanney (probable Krishan), were found guilty by a plot against their king Dinaskey, who sent troops after them. They escaped and came in Armenia under the king Valarsace, who was crowned king in 3852 (a century and a half before Christ) . Their descendants transformed the two princes into hindu gods. Zenobius was the disciple of the Saint Gregory the Illuminator (c. 257 – c. 331), the patron saint of Armenia. When Saint Gregory was informed by some princes that in the province Taron exists idolatrous temples in which offerings to the Devil were made, he wanted those temples to be demolished. He and his followers arrived in the hindu collony established in the town Kesaney, but the hindu priests hearing about the demolition, ”removed from the temples all the treasure”. Then, the hindus collected an army commanded by the hindu priest (6) Arzan (arzan=idol in Armenian). It seems that the hindu army increased in size to 5,450 people with the help from the hindu cities Vishap, Partukh, Meghti, Astagon. The armenians won the battle, and ”monuments were raised on their graves.” Here is the inscription on the grave of hindu priest Arzan as it was recorded by the bishop Zenobius : ”The first battle fought very fiercely, the chief commander in the battle was Arzan the head priest, who lies here interred, and with him one thousand and thirty-eight men. We waged this war for the idol Keisaney and on behalf of Christ.” The brass idols of Keisaney and Demetr ”were broked to pieces. The lenght of the former was fifteen feet, and that of the latter twelve feet.” ”The priests of the idols, with tears in their eyes, entreated the victors to put themselves to death, rather than destroy their mighty Keisaney. Six priests were killed on the spot for the resistance they offered to the Armenians.” Saint Gregory baptized in the Christian religion the remaining 5,050 hindu men, and the females were baptized in another day. However the hindus ” tenaciously adhered to the the idolatrous practices of their forefathers.”
The armenian hindus lived well for 450 years in the Armenian province of Taron. But Saint Gregory the Illuminator killed them in the name of Christ! The ruins of the Saint Karapet Monastery, now in Turkey, stands at the site of the two Hindu temples (7). They were razed to the ground by Gregory the Illuminator, who erected a martyrion to house the remains of Saints Athenogenes and John the Baptist which he had brought from Caesarea(8).
Now, coming back to the supposedly separation of the first Roma in three groups, one group being settled in Armenia, we see that here is a mismatch. Why? Because the Roma professors Marcel Courthiade and Ian Hancock believe that the Roma are the descendants of the defetead hindus from Kannauj in the winter of 1018-19 . Or, the hindu town Kannauj was plundered 1000 years ago, and the first hindu colony in Armenia was established 2166 years ago!
As a final conclusion, it is clear that the so-called armenian borrowings in Romani language are in fact hindu words borrowed by the native armenians from the first hindu colony killed and then baptized by Gregory the Illuminator. It is known that all the Indo-Aryan languages are sharing the same vernacular words, many of them being obsolete in one hindu language, but preserved in another.The borrowing of the hindu words in the Armenian language was a natural phenomenon, as a result of the long comercial and social relations between the native armenians and the hindus. As a real proove is the word Arzan, which was the name of the hindu priest commander of the hindu warriors who fought heroic. The personal name Arzan became usual in the Armenian language for the word ”idol”. Maybe it is a evolution of the sanskrit word Rsi- a sage, a word met in Romani also, under the form Rashai- a priest.
So-called armenian (9, 10, 11) borrowings in the Romani language:
Button- kochak, dog-rikono, dough-humer, deep- hor, dust- posh, godfather- kirvo, horse- grast, land-them, oven- bov, skin- morkhi, king- thagar, master- hulai, incense- thuni, piece- kotor, town- diz, melon- dudum, witch –chovehani, dzolano-mule, soul- odji, father of the bride/groom- hanamik, candle- momeli, phol-gold, coat- thalik, honour- pakiv, plum- tsilavi, suet-khoni, eyelash- chamchuli, sand- kishai.
In my next book on the origin of the Romani language i will demonstrate that all this supposed armenian borrowings in Romani, are in fact used even today in India, as are in Armenia, being borrowed by the armenians from the first hindu colony settled 2166 years ago in the armenian Taron region.
Who is the writer of the present article?
My name is Cîrpaci Marian Nuțu, and i am independent researcher in the history of Romani nation. I am the first discoverer of the forgotten history of the Loma people. Please ask my permission if you want to quote my discovery.
Contact me at: email@example.com/ Facebook ID: Baro Rom (Ulise)
1- Delia Grigore, Gheorghe Sarău , Istorie și tradiții rrome, page 87, pdf version
2- The official site of the the romanian Ministry of Education and Research, the book in pdf version: www.edu.ro/download/istoria_rromilor_v4.pdf
Petre Petcuț, Delia Grigore,Mariana Sandu, Istoria și tradițiile rromilor, Bucure[ti: Ro Media, 2003, page 20.
3- Charles G. Leland , The gypsies , The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1882 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22939/22939-h/22939-h.htm
4-Donald Kenrick, Gypsies: From the Ganges to the Thames, page 30, https://books.google.ro/books?id=df2mIOnbrDoC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=he+main+effect+of+contact+with+Armenian+was+to+change+sounds+like+b&source=bl&ots=5K22YPyvyK&sig=y1snSc-lYMjpvIoWe_anP3-f09Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiyiqzHw_DMAhUI1iwKHcjVAGAQ6AEIGzAA#v=onepage&q=he%20main%20effect%20of%20contact%20with%20Armenian%20was%20to%20change%20sounds%20like%20b&f=false
5- The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and foreign India, China and Australasia, Volume 22, London 1837, pag. 181
6- Idem, page 182
9- Ian Hancock, On Romani origins and identity, The Romani Archives and Documentation Center, The University of Texas at Austin.
10- Bakker, P. & Monrad, A. 2011. Roma: linguistic archaeology of nomads. AmS-Varia 53, 35–44. Stavanger. ISSN 0332-6306, ISBN 978-82-7760-152-6, UDK 314. http://am.uis.no/getfile.php/Arkeologisk%20museum/publikasjoner/Varia-53-peterbakker-og-astridmonrad.pdf
11- Viktor Elšík, Loanwords in Selice Romani, an Indo-Aryan language of Slovakia