All Romanian researchers were wrong in thinking that if is written ȚIGAN (tsigan) in the Romanian medieval documents relating to slaves , this means that the ”Tsigani” (pl.) are ONLY the Roma gypsies, those who are speaking the Romani language. But not only the romanian historians are wrong believing that all those called Tsigani are of Roma origin, but even the Tsigani which does not belong to a traditional Roma family believe the same, i.e. if the romanians use the word Tsigan equally for speakers of the Romani language and for non-speakers, then the non-speakers are of Roma origin, but forgot their Romani language.The reality is that in the Romanian/ Valachian countries were enslaved many other races from various parts of the world, without any genetic or cultural connection. This means that the term tsigan/gypsy appoint a social stratum, not an ethnic group in particular. The name tsigan/gypsy is applied in Romania only to the Roma nation in modern times, because they are the last enslaved migratory layer. As we shall see , the Roma people are defining themselves as Roma, only on the basis of inherited knowledge of the Romani shib/chib/jib, the gypsy language.
THE HARAP/MOOR (ETHIOPIANS) TSIGANI/GYPSIES
The syrian Archdeacon Paul of Aleppo ( 1) , visiting Romanian countries between the years 1653 to 1656 , made the following remark about slaves Moor :
“ It is worth remark, that the greatest part of the grooms, who have the care of the horses belonging to the Beg and the Grandees of State, are from our country, and from Egypt Mahometans and Christians. They have also a multitude of purchased servants of the black slaves, whom they commonly call to by the name of " Arab ! Arab !" They, consequently, think that all the people of our country are black slaves, or stable-grooms; and for this reason we are looked upon with an eye of much contempt by them: so that when we arrived among them, and they beheld the Patriarch, and our style and ceremonies, and observed our eloquent reading of the Greek language, they were much astonished..”
If true, then the Romanian countries were holding black slaves / Africans before the United States ! It seems that the spirit of the Romanian people on color perception slaves / Gypsies was not seen until our present work. Look how in the past centuries the native romanians/valachians distinguished the racial traits of African slaves (2 ) and Indians ( Roma):
„There are three kinds of curses on Gypsies. The ugly Gypsies, thick-lipped and black as coal, as Satan himself are cursed by monks, in the times when they were slaves in monasteries. The black ones , called ”țigani de vatra”, knowing the smithery are cursed from Ham.The Gypsies called ”țigani de laie” : bear-trainers, the ”lăeţii” ,” zavragii” , ”netoţii ”, etc., and all kinds of Gypsies , who walk from place to place on horses and donkeys , which sit under tents and are hated as you do cross, are cursed by a saint” ( Iuliu Zane, Proverbele Românilor vol. 6, pag. 354)
The popular description was recorded by Zane . We see that the text indicates three categories of black Gypsies :
-ugly, thick-lipped and very very black, as coal.
-the ţiganii which have traditional crafts associated with the Roma nation , the ursari , zavragii , etc .
The first category of Gypsies from the Zane`s text is linked anthropologically with Blacks / Africans. Indeed ,the first and oldest romanian dictionary (1825), the Lexicon from Buda, on page 28 defines the word ARAP as a person of arabic or ethiopian oirigin: „adeq harap”. On page 225, the Lexicon states: " harap or Arabic woman ." It is clear that Romanians confused Arab with Arap because of the similarity of pronunciation, but Zane 's text describes very plastic Ethiopian slaves as THICK-LIPPED AND BLACK AS COAL, not simply black as the nomad gypsies. IN ZANE 'S TEXT IS OBSERVED THE ATTEMPT OF TELLING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GYPSY SLAVES DISTINCTIVE FEATURES AFTER RACIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS. Harapii or Arabs described by Paul of Aleppo fall into the category of the thick-lipped and black as coal slaves/țigani, because Paul of Aleppo stated that in Romania were Syrian groom employees, and bought black slaves. The description black slaves as thick-lipped would fit more to the African type, not the Indian. Even today we still see Roma who kept Indian genetics. On their view, any visitor to Romania who visited India , could believe that they are of Indian nationality .
Here's how trying Odobescu ( 3) explain the mysterious romanian expression „țigan de laie”:
"Laiu, laie is an unknown adjective in our languages from Romanian Principates , Moldovia and Ardeal. We indeed say ”țigan de laie” and the Romanian-Latin Lexicon from Buda, is translating the word Laie as Caterva, giving its origin in the greek word ιλη, sorry, as we see here a mistake, especially when we learn the the Romanians from Macedonia, who are talking a little different dialect, are telling: laiu and laie, instead negru (black,masc.) and neagră (black,fem.). So, the Țiganii de Laie, would be the Blackest Gypsies, as they really are, and the Miorița laie (the back sheep) is the Miorița neagră. (Odobescu, 1941:202)
Even today, many romanian gypsies/țigani are calling themselves as “țigan de laie/laiash”,“țigan de vatra”, or “rudar/bayash/boyash”, they explaining this self-designation as a gypsy which does not know the Romani language.
Here's what Scriban said in his dictionary :
Țigán and (old) Ațigán, -că s. (vsl. Cyganinŭ, Cyganŭka, rus. Cygan, -nka, ung. Cigány, germ. Zigeuner, ngr. Tsiganos, it. Zingaro, words reduced to the turkish., arabic Zenği, Etiopian, Zenği-bar, the Ethipian country, „Zanghebar, Zanzibar”. In the oldest documents they are called Ațiganĭ, which demonstrates us that this name was given to them by Macedonians. The Greeks call them Gýfti, the Spanish Gitanos, meaning Egyptians. The Arabic people confounded them with Ethiopians (Haraps, Nubians, Somali, Zanzibar, etc..) (https://dexonline.ro/definitie/TIGAN)
Scriban believed that Arabians have confused the Gypsy Tsigani with the Ethiopians . It seems that at least two sources of bibliography attests that Haraps/ Ethiopians were slaves in Romania. The first is the Syrian Bishop Paul of Aleppo , the second source is Lexicon of Buda ( 1825 ), page 28 , the word " Arap " is defined as Ethiopian or Arab, but not as as Tsigan, because in those times the romanians still knew the original countries of the Ethiopians and Roma. In those times only to the Roma the word Tsigan was applied, as its meaning was SLAVE. It is possible that the Ethiopians/ Harap were absolved by slavery, in their place being put the Roma nation, that`s why the oldest romanian dictionary (1825) dont explains the word Arap/Ethiopian as Tsigan (slave). Of course we can not question the testimony of a Christian cleric. Paul of Aleppo visited in the year 1650 the Romanian countries, so could not be a mistake.
Other populations enslaved in Romania: GAVAON, HOLOP, BULGARIANS AND TATARS
In the History of Bessarabia (www.bp-soroca.md/soroca/istoria%20basarabiei.pdf) , vol . I, p. 234 , A. V. Boldur tells us an interesting detail about the slaves from Romania : ”...among prisoniers were sometimes people of other nationalities , one might think that were at Romanians in the older times other servants, than Tatars and Gypsies , although documents do not talk about this. ”
Amaro celedo- OUR ENSLAVED FAMILY. Linguistic archeology.
Boldur (4) informs us that for Gypsies and Tatars in Romanian documents the old Slavonic word Celed was used , which in the Russian language had the form Celeadin:
"In our documents the word "celed" has two meanings: the first means the group of slaves, their family or household, indicating the name of the head of the family, the second is simply a slave individually. This can be seen clearly in the document of 23 Apr. 1441, which gives to the monastery Poiana ”four tsigan/gypsies celed with the name Slav Hârlăuanul with celedea and Nicola with celedea and Bâzâla with celedea”. Usually the word celed in the first meaning, is translated as home or yard, but it would more correct to be used as family or household. In a document from 1446, is written about six "celed " Gypsy , after showing the name of heads of families is added: with their women and children and with all their descendants (nașlednichi). In one suret of uric (old romanian offical document, our note) from 30 March 1500 celed is translated as” room”, which is closer to the notion of ”family”. (Istoria Basarabiei, contribuții la studiul istoriei românilor de A.V.Boldur, vol. I, pag . 234, Chișinău, 1937)
Some Romani dialects still possess this word , "celed" in the formula "Amaro cheledo"- "our family" referring to family, clan,nation. This shows that the parents of these Roma groups using this word (cheledo), were slaves. But are many Roma groups that do not have that word in their vocabulary, keeping the original Indian word for family. I am the discoverer of the etymology of the Romani half-loaned expression "Amaro cheled ". Romani dialects still using the word ”celed”: Gurvari Romani, Kalderash Romani, Latvian Romani ( „cel”), Lovara Romani, Slovak Romani, Hungarian Vend, Romungro Romani, Vershend Romani. The Roma from Macedonia, called Džambazi Romani, use the form „ roboria” – family members, Bugurdži Romani use the same „robos”-child, memebr of family, Gurbet Romani use the form „robora”- family. Rob (sg.), roborya (pl.) is a romanian word too, meaning ”slave”. Nearly all Romani dialects are using this russian word ”cheledo ” or ”rob”/slave. The fact that in older times were other enslaved nations is attested in another document. A strange name of tsigan slaves, is ”țigani holopi”, called this way by Eremia Moghilă Voievod in 1598, 7 January (5):
”I, Eremiia Moghilă Voevod, by the mercy of God, ruler of the Moldavian country, gave this book to my servant Vasile stolnic, to be with it strong and master of the holop (rob)/țigan, Mura and his wife and children... ” (Surete și izvoade vol XXI de Gh. Ghibănescu. pag 134-135)
The original slavonic text does not has the parenthesis which is present in the romanian translation made by Ghibănescu. So, we conclude that the holopi were another enslaved nation considered Tsigani also.
Some of the slaves/Gypsies in the Romanian countries had an self-designation, namely ”gavaon” , covering a period of more than a hundred years. The first man who drew attention to this word was the romanian historian Petre Petcut (7). He, however, mistakenly identified the name of gavaons with the indian city named Gavaon, believeng that the name gavaon belongs to Roma. Petre Petcuț based his explanation on the romani word “gavutno”-peasant. This word is Romani one, being formed by gau/gav-village, and the suffix -u(t)no, a sanskrit one, which designates origin or quality. The Roma people never seen themselves as peasants in their European history. WE found the oldest mention of the word gavaon with the meaning of tsigan/gypsy/slave in 1511 in a Romanian medieval document. But, we cannot trust on a single word to identify the language of a nation, being known that many words belonging to different languages are resembling each other randomly. But, mister Petre Petcuț ignores the traditional self-designation of Roma people, the word Rom. If the tsigani slaves called themselves gavaon in their language, it is naturally to suppose that the language of the gavaons would had had in its composition a little by the word gavaon. This principle is met at all the names of languages in the whole word, the self-designation gives the name of the spoken language. But the medieval documents are silent about the language of gavaons, keeping just the feminine name Dochina (8) Gavaona la 5 August 1634, when is mentioned that Radul the treasurer buys a family of gavaons from the nun Mariica, in a document signed by the ruler Matei Basarab. It is curious the way of the feminization of the masculine noun gavaon in the archaic romanian. This can be a proof of the long staying of gavaons in the romanian teritories, because the feminine word Romni- a gypsy woman, entered in the romanian language through a dance called ”Romnia”, noun about Șăineanu (9) în Dicționar universal al limbei române, p. 553, 1929 said: Romnia f. A peasant dance borrowed from Gypsies. (Literarly Tsiganesca (by the gypsy word ROMNI- the Gypsy woman)). If the Roma would have been entered in the same time with the Gavaons in Romania, the the native romanians would have been transformed the word Romni as ROAMNI, but the name of the melody became RomniA, with the romanian suffix –A. After the Romani language suffix –ni, (with this suffix in India all feminine nouns being formed), the native romanians from the times when this peasant dance (hora) was frequently sung, transformed the Romani word Romni into a romanian one by adding to it the romanian suffix –a.
Who were the Gavaons?
THE FIRST MENTION discovered BY ME of the self-designation GAVAON can be found in a medieval manuscript called SLOVO GRIGORIA BOGOSLOVA, from 1511, in Moldavia. The document has some corrections and explanations. On the page 78 appears the word ”gavaon”, and maginally ”tsigani”. This is information can be found in ”Studii și materiale de istorie medie”, vol. VI page 334. Further, another document is revealing the reason why the Gavaons were slaves. The reason was that the Gavaons were not Christians, and can be found in the article ”Considerațuni asupra termenilor Vlah și rumîn pe baza documentelor interne ale Țării Romînești din veacurile XIV-XVII” by Șt. Ștefănescu. In the document issued in 14 January 1617, it is written that Alexandru Iliaș empowers to the village Văslăneștii and to all elders with the right of ownership. The dwellers of this village were ”vecini ” (another medieval romanian social category, very close to slavery), of the mistress Balosina. Before her death, she wanted to ”give them to the monastery, to be alms gift. But, then they considered thay would be of no use, because their sins would be multiplied and they would be damned, because they are Christian Vlachs, they are not Țigani, which are called in their language Gavaons.” As a result, the mistress gives as a gift the village to the former slaves. This is the commentary of Șt. Ștefănescu :
”The words of mistress Balosina and her husband Dima highlight the drama of the vast majority of the population of the country, which by the means of the feudal politics were drawn in the situation of being slaves, in the hands of the landlords. Renouncing to traditional practice because she was facing death, feeling it close, being afraid that ”their sins would be multiplied and the maledictions”, the mistress Balosina and her husband decide to give the liberty to the "'vecini" from Vălsănești. The motive of this decision, is that they, the vecini from Vălsănești, ”are Christian Vlachs, not țigani, who are called in their language Gavaons”. The designation, which shows the ethnicity, as well as the affiliation to the Christian religion, it seems that remained in the mind of feudal landlords as the only distinctive elements between the dependent peasants by the tigani slaves.” (Ștefănescu, 1960: 71)
From the document issued at 14 January 1617 results the ideea that the Tsigani were not Christians, and with them anyone can do anything on the basis of heresy. THE ROMA NEVER SELF-DESIGNATED GAVAONS IN THEIR LANGUAGE. It seems that the Gavaons kept their ethnic identity from 1511 to 1634. In that time another document speaks about the self-desgination Gavaon Covaci (BLACSMITH), AND IN 1636 appears one more time under the form ”sălaș of gavaoni” i.e. family of slaves (5).
If the Tsigani Gavoni Blacksmiths (covaci) still remembered their self-designation în 1636, this means that their offsprings are living today but they forgot their language. In Romania exists a believeing amongst the Blacksmiths Tigani that just them, those who does not speak the Romani language are the real Blacksmiths, not the speakers of the Romani languages, which are blacksmiths too. These non-speakers of Romani, are believing that they are belinging to Hamites family. The same opinion i heard it from Ciprian Necula, who is holding a PhD degree in Romani anthroplogy. He said me that i am not a real blacksmith because i am speaking the Romani language. I contradicted him saying that the names of tools and metals used by Roma blacksmiths are in Hindi, this showing us that the first Roma blacksmiths came from India with Romani smithery. The ”Tsigani de vatră” (blacksmiths) from the Zane`s account, it seems that are the blacksmiths to whom the romanian ruler Alexandru cel Bun gave them the right to use free the water and to make fire for smithery. In fact the traditional self-designation ”Tsigani de vatră” of some romanian Gypsies, reveals us that they are blacksmiths, beacuse the romanian word ”vatră” means the fire-place of a blackmith.This is an old sense of the word ”vatră”. The second-meaning of it is ”home”, ”place”, many gypsies believing that their self-designation means that they are the first gypsies who abandoned their nomadic life. This wrong opinion about the first old meaning of the self-designation ”Tsigani de vatră” was possible due to obliviousness of the original meaning, namely ”fire-place”. Can be possible the Athinganoi were the same people who were enslaved in Tismana monastery at 1385? The second nation it seems to be the Gavaon/Covaci (blacksmiths). After 1835, Alexandru cel Bun (ruled between 1400-1432) gifted the Bistrița monastery 31 groups of tsigani and 12 of tatars. I suppose that the Tsigani were the Gavaons, as non-members of the Christian religion, and the Tatars were war prisoniers. I suppose this way because Zamfir Arbure (6) said that the ruler Alexandru cel Bun gave the right to practice smithery to the Tsigani: ”According to a letter of Alexandru cel Bun, the Ruler of Moldavia, gave to the Țigani << the right to use freely the air and water, and to make fire for smithery>>”. The same author said that in his time (1898), the Vătrași (Tsigani de vatră), are living in towns as servants, singers and ”argat” – hired servant for hard works. Zamfir Arbure classifies the Tsigani in three categories:
-The Vătrași (the former blacksmiths, after our incursion in their history).
-The Lingurari (the spoon makers, or the Rudari, another Gypsies not knowing the Romani language)
-The Ursari (bear-trainers, real Roma, or Laieși, as are named by Zamfir Arbure. Laie meant black in the old Romanian.
I suppose that those Gypsies who have surnames as Scripcaru (violonist), Cobzaru (another type of old violin), Cimpoieru (bagpiper), etc., in fact are belonging to the Tsigani de Vatră/Vatrashi, or formerly Gavaons. The book of Zamfir Arbure can be found online at : https://archive.org/stream/basarabiainseco00arbugoog#page/n125/mode/2up
The expression ”Tsigan de vatră” is used as a self-designation by a lot of romanian Gypsies who dont know the Romani language. In ”Anuarul Societății Prahovene de Antropologie Generală”, nr. 1, 2015, i tried to explain the name Gavaon as being of Avar (10) origin, on the basis of Bogdan Petriceu researching : https://www.scribd.com/doc/307478221/Rom-or-%C8%9Aigan. See the note-foot of page 37, my article ”Between an Exonym and an Antonym, Or a Medieval Superimiposition”. In brief, in medieval Romania, some of the criteria on taking in slavery were:
-the black colour, as was the case with the Ethiopian slaves called Arap in the old romanian language. The curse of the black colour has the source in Bible, when Noah curses his son Ham. In the Hbrew language Ham means SUNBURST, black, swarthy (http://biblehub.com/topical/h/ham.htm)
- the non-membership to the Christian religion. At least two populations were enslaved on the basis of this reason. The first are the Athinganoi, the byzantine heretic sect, and secondly, the Gavaons. The romanian old form Ațigan exists also in the romanian mediaval documents about slavery, so we can conclude that the Athinganoi became slaves in the romanian monasteries. The word Ațigani could not be written without the presence of the people self-designating themselves as Ațiganoi. ”The etymology of the word is not certain, but a common determination is a derivation in Greek for "(the) untouchables" derived from a privative alpha prefix and the verb thingano (θιγγάνω, to touch).” ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athinganoi).
The most interesting for identification are the misterious Gavaon people, which are totally unknown for the modern romanian history, only the medieval romanian documents prooving that this race existed and was a long period of time in slavery. The Gavaons little by little forgot their original language, and simply became romanians, but keeping their only identity as Tsigani (social category formerly, and after the release (1833) from slavery as a self-designation), i.e., slaves in the old romanian language. The word Tsigani, was first used to designate the greek athinganoi, and then all the enslaved populations in romania.
THE ONLY WAY TO RECOGNIZE A ROM WAS THE KNOWLEDEGE OF THE INHERITANCE HOME OF THE ROMANI LANGUAGE, BECAUSE NOT ONLY THE ROMA WERE BLACK SLAVES, BUT THE ETHIOPIANS TOO, so the colour was not the principal factor of identification among the romanian slaves, but the language. Mister Ronald Lee (11), a native Romani speaker, living in Canada, wrote in his book "Das duma Romanes", at the page 218, the old tradition of gypsies regarding the Rom wich dont know the Romani language: ”Rom bi shibako nai Rrom - A Rom without tongue is not a Rom (i.e. a Rom who doesn`t speak Romani is not a Rom) .The gypsies wich dont speak the Romani language are called Kashtale: Wo si Rrom kashtalo- he is a wooden one (unable to speak Romani). Nai chache Rroma, Kashtale si- They are not real Rroma. They are wooden ones. Rrom Kahstalo would be Rrom bi-shibako. ” (Ronald Lee, page 164). Can be found online in the same book of Mister Ronald Lee.
THE TSIGANI SUCCEDED, NOT THE ROMA!
Nicoale Gheorghe (N.G) the founder of romanian gypsy NGOism, said in an interview (12) taken by Iuliu Rostas (I.R.):
N.G.: And? Who succeeded : the Roma or Gypsies ? I.R .: I think the fact that we present ourselves as Roma, you cannot present as tsigani. Because the emancipatory project is the Roma one , the emancipatory project is not the Gypsy one. N.G.: Whose emancipatory project? Who is the political actor wich is presenting the project? I.R.: The Roma activists.N.G.: WICH ARE ŢIGANI.THE MAJORITY ORIGINATE FROM TSIGANI,NOT FROM TRADITIONAL ROMA. I.R.: They define themselves as roms, the label themselves as roms. N.G.: This is what i mean, but they are not necessarily recognized as true roms.
How the FAKE-ROMA succeded?
N.G.:And if you can have acces to resources(i.e.,money) by pretending to be a rom is good, because all we are roms somehow. (Rom sau Tigan, pag 336)
The resources about Nicolae Gheorghe is speaking, are the money stolen by the NGOs. Because they stole those money, now many Roms are very poor and forced to steal, the gypsy childern are begging and the gypsy girls engaged in prostitution. All these sins will be on the heads of fake roms. Nicolae Gheorghe was a baptized christian! Baptized by the auto-proclaimed gypsy king Cioabă himself!
Nicolae Gheorghe was not a Rom, he said it, and he wanted to die as a Tsigan!
N.G.: If i wil die, if i talk constantly with the death, i want to die like a human being, or like a tsigan, but i will not can not die as a rom. (Rom sau Țigan, pag. 328)
N.G.: I mean that i am not, i do not qualify as a roma and then i feel myself more complet and comfortable as tsigan, in the romanian vernacular meaning of the word: willy-nilly, in the way as i was raised, this word is more familiar to me, as the romanian saying states that ”the shirt is closer to skin”. (Rom sau Țigan, pag. 328)
N.G.: My mother dont allowed me to mix myself with the tsiganii laetsi (this way she called the roms living in tents), about them she used to say that are dirty and dangerous. My first terror about gypsies came from my mother, and she innoculated it into me so deep, that yet now i feel it. (Rom sau Tigan, pag. 321)
The Kashtale never knew that the Roma are calling themselves ”Roma”, before the romanian Revolution, but after Revolution, they become Roma beacuse they had ACCES to Roma resources, as Nicolae Gheorghe said. More about Nicolae Gheorghe: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Gheorghe
The book Rom sau Tigan was wrote with the aim to clarify the confuzion between the two words Rom (gypsy) and Român (native inhabitant of Romania). Can be downloaded from: http://www.fundatia.ro/sites/default/files/ro_124_Rom%20sau%20tigan.pdf
The wrong belief that any Tsigan from Romania is a Rom, must STOP! As we all see, in the medieval romanian documents it is WRITTEN that in Romania were many different nations enslaved.
Fragment from my future book.
Autor: Cîrpaci Marian Nuțu, Blacksmith Tsigan in Romanian language,and Rom in Romani language. Contact: naayram@gmail. Facebook ID: Baro Rom (Ulise).
1-Paul of Aleppo, The travels of Macarius : Patriarch of Antioch, vol. I, London : Printed for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great-Britain and Ireland, 1836. https://archive.org/stream/travelsmacarius01pauluoft#page/n157/mode/2up
2- Iuliu Zane, Proverbele Românilor vol. 6, 1901.
3- Al. Odobescu, Opere alese, vol. II, Editura Cugetarea-Georgescu Delafras, Bucureşti, 1941.
4- Alexandru V. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei. Epocile vechi (Vol. I), Chișinău, Tipografia Dreptatea, 1937
5-Surete și izvoade vol XXI de Gh. Ghibănescu.
6- Zamfir C. Arbure, Basarabia in secolul XIX, pag. 113-114, Editura C. Göbl, 1898.
7- Petcuţ, Petre, Sclavie şi libertate, pag 33, Bucureşti: Editura Centrului Naţional de Cultură a Romilor , 2015.
8-Documenta Romaniae Historica. Seria B. Ţara Românească. Volumul 24, pag 467. Dochina
9-Șăineanu, Lazăr, Dicționar universal al limbei române, 1929.
A- Studii și materiale de istorie medie, vol. VI page 334, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania, 1960.
10-Anuarul Societății Prahovene de Antropologie Generală, nr. 1, 2015, editura Mythos.
11-Ronald Lee, Das duma Romanes, University of Hertfordshire Press, 2005.
12- ROM SAU ŢIGAN Dilemele unui etnonim în spaţiul românesc, Editura Institutului pentru Studierea Problemelor Minorităţilor Naţionale, Cluj-Napoca, 2012. (http://www.fundatia.ro/sites/default/files/ro_124_Rom%20sau%20tigan.pdf )